Microbes are everywhere! On your phone, in your water bottle. On your hands before you wash them — on your hands after you wash them. And literally everywhere else on top of you too. Unfortunately, Microbes are omnipresent at every moment thus we recommend you 16 foods to boost the immune system and protect ourselves from these microbes.
Our safe keeper, the immune system is made up of organs, tissues, cells, and little molecules that work day and night to protect us from the attacks of foreign invaders like viruses, bacteria, and fungi which eventually cause us disease and ailment. Sometimes though, it needs a little boost to fight off these attacks and stay ahead of all the Jedi mind tricks that they pull.
What better way to do this than consume foods to boost the immune system naturally?
This is why from the moment we can remember, our parents always told us to finish our vegetables, drink our milk, and snack on fruits. It’s not because it’s a tradition passed out from generation to generation but because it’s the best way to fend against these microbes by boosting the immune system and making it a hundred times stronger, swifter, and more alert. Here’s what the CDC had to say about the link between food, health, and immunity :
“A healthy lifestyle offers many benefits, including helping to prevent heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. Another important benefit is that healthy routines enhance your immunity.”
On that note, we’ve compiled for you in this article a list of 16 foods to boost the immune system to continue fighting the fight and winning the war.
- 1. Citrus Fruits Help Boost Immunity
- 2. Reishi Mushrooms Stimulate Immune Cells
- 3. Ginger Has Anti Viral Properties That Boosts Immunity
- 4. Garlic Helps In Developing Immunity Against Cold And Flu
- 5. Spinach Has Antioxidants Which Boost Immunity
- 6. Sesame Seeds Are A Rich Source Of Iron
- 7. Bell Peppers Are A Great Food To Boost Your Immunity
- 8. Broccoli Has All Important Nutrients For Optimal Health
- 9. Yogurt Has Beneficial Bacteria That Boost Immune System
- 10. Kiwi Has Many Health Benefits That Boost Your Immune System
- 11. Nuts And Seeds Are A Good Source Of Nutrients That Support Immune System
- 12. Papaya Modulates And Protects The Immune System
- 13. Sweet Potatoes Have Beneficial Effect On Immune System
- 14. Fatty Fish Has Shown Benefits In Boosting Immune System
- 15. Watermelons Regulate Inflammatory Process
- 16. Pomegranate Reduces Free Radicals
1. Citrus Fruits Help Boost Immunity
We’re starting with this one right off the bat because of its well-known Vitamin-C rich profile which acts as an antioxidant to help the body fight off infections.
Whenever you hear someone has a cold or has the flu you immediately go to lemon juice or eat an orange. Beyond its great beneficial effects in fighting off microbes and boosting the immune system, they’re also the easiest when it comes to their utilization. They can be squeezed on most foods or made as a delicious drink as well.
According to the National Institute of Health, the recommended daily intake of vitamin c is 75 mg for women and 90 mg for men.
Citrus fruits include the following:
- Lemons and limes
2. Reishi Mushrooms Stimulate Immune Cells
Our second contender is the famous Reishi mushroom. This mushroom has been extensively studied for treatment of depression and diabetes. During these studies it was found that it had following additional benefits in enhancing immune system function:
· Modulates the inflammatory process inside the body
· Stimulating immune cells
· Fighting cancer
· Fighting infection
· Improves protective function of immune cells
3. Ginger Has Anti Viral Properties That Boosts Immunity
Ginger is a root that has many benefits. In addition to being a natural anti-inflammatory, ginger is also an effective natural anti-nausea treatment and has been studied as an effective remedy for motion sickness; it’s also been found to be helpful with nausea caused by chemotherapy. Ginger has even been shown to have some antiviral properties, which makes it more than just your average spice!
And don’t forget about ginger’s antibacterial qualities: one study found that it was just as effective at fighting off salmonella infections as antibiotics like amoxicillin (and without any of the side effects).
4. Garlic Helps In Developing Immunity Against Cold And Flu
This next one you probably know from every vampire movie ever made. That’s right, we’re talking about garlic.
Garlic is a great all-natural antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fungal. It also has some antiviral properties and natural antioxidant benefits. Garlic has been used throughout history as an herbal remedy for a variety of ailments.
The health benefits of garlic include:
- Preventing and treating colds and flu
- Reducing bad cholesterol levels in the blood by up to 20 percent, making it good for heart health
- Lowering blood pressure by up to 8 percent
5. Spinach Has Antioxidants Which Boost Immunity
Spinach is rich in iron, a mineral that is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin and helps to transport oxygen. It also provides vitamin C, folic acid, and many other important nutrients.
The primary benefit of spinach is that it has antioxidants. Antioxidants are important because they help prevent your cells from damage by free radicals which can cause cancer. Spinach also has plenty of other health benefits including fighting against heart disease, stroke prevention, and even helping you live longer!
A healthy diet filled with spinach and dark leafy greens can go a long way in strengthening your immune system.
6. Sesame Seeds Are A Rich Source Of Iron
Sesame seeds are a reliable source of iron, calcium, and magnesium. They also contain zinc, vitamin E (an antioxidant), protein, and fiber.
They are useful in many ways:
- Cooked with rice or pasta in salads
- Sprinkled on the chicken breast before grilling it (1 tablespoon will give you 35% of your daily recommended intake!)
- Just eat them plain as a snack.
7. Bell Peppers Are A Great Food To Boost Your Immunity
Bell peppers are a great food to add to your diet if you want to boost your immune system. They are high in vitamin C, which is important for fighting colds and the flu.
Similarly, they also have a lot of vitamin A, which helps prevent night blindness and cataracts, as well as eye diseases like macular degeneration and glaucoma.
Bell peppers also contain substantial amounts of vitamin K, B6 (pyridoxine), E (tocopherol), B1 (thiamin), folic acid, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, niacin, and biotin; all nutrients that can help fight infection by strengthening the body’s defense mechanisms.
8. Broccoli Has All Important Nutrients For Optimal Health
Broccoli is a vegetable from the cabbage family. It’s also known for its high vitamin C content, which helps boost your immune system as well as protect against infections and viruses. It’s also rich in fiber, manganese, vitamin K and vitamin A—all-important nutrients for optimal health.
It’s important to note though that there have been multiple research that promotes eating broccoli uncooked or cooked as little as possible to gain its nutritional benefits.
9. Yogurt Has Beneficial Bacteria That Boost Immune System
Yogurt is a major source of probiotics, which are beneficial bacteria that help to boost your immune system. The benefits of probiotics include the following:
- Helping to relieve symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- Protecting against colds and flu by strengthening your body’s defenses against harmful bacteria
- Benefiting your digestive health by reducing gas, bloating, and diarrhea
- Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor immune-modulatory effects
You should eat yogurt once or twice a day. It can be plain yogurt or flavored with fruit or nuts. If you choose nonfat or low-fat yogurt, it will have fewer calories but still, contain all the necessary nutrients.
You can also make your yogurt at home by combining one gallon of whole milk with a teaspoon of each sugar and active dry yeast; put the mixture in a jar and store it at room temperature for 24 hours before refrigerating it until thickened (usually about 12 hours).
If you do not want to use whole milk, consider using 2% instead since this has less fat than whole milk does.
10. Kiwi Has Many Health Benefits That Boost Your Immune System
It is a good source of vitamin C, potassium, and fiber. Kiwi contains vitamins A, B6, C, and E as well as the mineral iron. The fruit also contains enzymes that promote digestion and help to break down proteins.
In addition to being delicious, kiwi has many health benefits for your immune system:
- Antioxidant – Kiwis are rich in Vitamin C which helps neutralize free radicals. Free radicals damage cell membranes and may lead to cancer if not removed from the body by antioxidants like vitamin C.
- Anti-Inflammatory – Kiwis contain potent anti-inflammatory properties due to their high vitamin E content.
- Immune Function – Vitamins A & K are essential for proper bone growth as well as regulating other functions within the body such as blood clotting.
- Digestion – High levels of fiber help keep you regular; fiber absorbs water which promotes bowel movement so it’s important for preventing constipation!
11. Nuts And Seeds Are A Good Source Of Nutrients That Support Immune System
Nuts and seeds are a reliable source of protein and healthy fats, which can help keep you feeling full longer. They’re also a good source of vitamin E, magnesium, zinc, and selenium—all-important nutrients that support the immune system.
Some of the best nuts for fighting colds or boosting immunity include walnuts, almonds, and pecans—these are also high in polyunsaturated fats which help fight cancer cells. When buying nuts make sure they aren’t salted as this will increase your sodium intake.
12. Papaya Modulates And Protects The Immune System
Another rich source of vitamin C with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties that play a critical role in modulating and protecting the immune system is the papaya.
However, most of the data come from preclinical studies performed on lab animals, so there’s a need for clinical studies to determine its effectiveness on humans.
13. Sweet Potatoes Have Beneficial Effect On Immune System
This one is probably recommended as being one of the best sources of beta carotene and vitamin A which have beneficial effects on the skin and immune system. However, there have been additional reports promoting its anti-tumor and anti-microbial immune-stimulating properties.
Moreover, it has been linked to having anti-diabetic properties as well. If you think about it, you can never go wrong by picking sweet potato as a sweet treat — enjoying the sweet taste and reaping all the nutritious benefits.
14. Fatty Fish Has Shown Benefits In Boosting Immune System
Oily Fish has proven to be very beneficial owing to their high omega-3 content which is composed of vitamin D.
Studies have revealed that they provide anti-inflammatory properties and regulate the functions of the immune system protecting against foreign invaders.
Moreover, they have shown superior benefits in reducing the effect of autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis.
Below is a list of the best fatty fish sources recommended for consumption:
- Tuna (uncanned)
- Black cod
Nevertheless, it’s advised for pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid having oily fish for the associated risk of pollutants like mercury.
15. Watermelons Regulate Inflammatory Process
The greatest cold treat on a hot summer day! Watermelons are good for other things next to being a delicious treat. They help stimulate the immune system by performing the following functions:
- Being a great antioxidant source as it contains glutathione which is known for destroying free radicals
- Promotes the immune system to fight infections
- Regulates inflammatory processes within the body
16. Pomegranate Reduces Free Radicals
As foretold by through the ancient Egyptian culture, pomegranate has beneficial properties when it comes to fighting infections, reducing free radicals, regulating functions of the immune system, and managing inflammatory reactions within the body.
This doesn’t come as a shock in current modern medicine because pomegranate is considered one of the richest sources of fibers, vitamin c, and potassium which generally promotes excellent immune functions.
To conclude, we would like to issue a reminder —again— on the importance of eating well. Remember it’s not about the quality, it’s about the quantity. It’s not about eating until you get full, it’s about the nutritional content you allow in your body. Thus, you should make it a habit to include the list we’ve compiled for you here today to reap the benefits of an enhanced immune system. Like Dr. Theresa DeLorenzo, RD, Director of the Nutrition and Human Performance program at Logan University, puts it:
“Adequate nutrition is vital to maintaining a healthy immune system”
When you think of your immune system, what do you think of? Do you think of how it protects you from infection and illness? Or maybe cancer? Or some other disease that’s on the rise these days. The point is that an efficient and healthy immune system is critical to our health and well-being. It’s so important that doctors often refer to it as our first line of defense against infection, illness, and disease. Remember: your body is sacred, and it deserves to be treated with care.
Selecting the right combination of supplements and meals is the key to healthy long life.
1. Miles EA, Calder PC. Effects of Citrus Fruit Juices and Their Bioactive Components on Inflammation and Immunity: A Narrative Review. Frontiers in Immunology. 2021 Jun 24;12:2558. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34249019/#:~:text=Citrus%20fruit%20juices%20are%20a,%2Dcells%20and%20B%2Dcells.
2. Carr AC, Maggini S. Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients [Internet]. 2017 Nov 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];9(11). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29099763/
3. Lin Z bin. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulation by Ganoderma lucidum. J Pharmacol Sci [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2022 Jun 5];99(2):144–53. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16230843/
4. Cheng CH, Leung AY, Chen CF. The effects of two different ganoderma species (Lingzhi) on gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Nutr Cancer [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2022 Jun 5];62(5):648–58. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20574926/
5. Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, Huang M, Dai X. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2022 Jun 5];32(3):201–15. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12916709/
6. Mandal A, Viswanathan C. Natural killer cells: In health and disease. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther [Internet]. 2015 Jun 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];8(2):47–55. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25571788/
7. Chen X, Hu ZP, Yang XX, Huang M, Gao Y, Tang W, et al. Monitoring of immune responses to a herbal immuno-modulator in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Int Immunopharmacol [Internet]. 2006 Mar [cited 2022 Jun 5];6(3):499–508. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16428086/
8. Zhang Y, Lin Z, Hu Y, Wang F. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum capsules on T lymphocyte subsets in football players on “living high-training low.” Br J Sports Med [Internet]. 2008 Oct [cited 2022 Jun 5];42(10):519–22. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18048435/
9. Wachtel-Galor S, Tomlinson B, Benzie IFF. Ganoderma lucidum (“Lingzhi”), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study. Br J Nutr [Internet]. 2004 Feb [cited 2022 Jun 5];91(2):263–9. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14756912/
10. An S, Liu G, Guo X, An Y, Wang R. Ginger extract enhances antioxidant ability and immunity of layers. Animal Nutrition. 2019 Dec 1;5(4):407–9. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31890918/
11. Haniadka R, Saldanha E, Sunita V, Palatty PL, Fayad R, Baliga MS. A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Food and Function. 2013;4(6):845–55. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23612703/
12. Chang JS, Wang KC, Shieh DE, Hsu FF, Chiang LC. Ge-Gen-Tang has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012 Jan 6;139(1):305–10. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22120014/#:~:text=GGT%20could%20stimulate%20mucosal%20cells,plaque%20formation%20in%20airway%20epithelium.
13. Chang JS, Wang KC, Yeh CF, Shieh DE, Chiang LC. Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale) has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol [Internet]. 2013 Jan 9 [cited 2022 Jun 5];145(1):146–51. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23123794/
14. Mashhadi NS, Ghiasvand R, Askari G, Hariri M, Darvishi L, Mofid MR. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence. International Journal of Preventive Medicine [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2022 Jun 5];4(Suppl 1):S36. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665023/#:~:text=It%20can%20treat%20a%20wide,pain%20after%20intense%20physical%20activity.
15. Salman H, Bergman M, Bessler H, Punsky I, Djaldetti M. Effect of a garlic derivative (alliin) on peripheral blood cell immune responses. International Journal of Immunopharmacology. 1999 Sep;21(9):589–97. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10501628/#:~:text=The%20Con%2DA%20induced%20cell,of%20the%20peripheral%20blood%20cells.
16. Arreola R, Quintero-Fabián S, Lopez-Roa RI, Flores-Gutierrez EO, Reyes-Grajeda JP, Carrera-Quintanar L, et al. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds. Journal of Immunology Research [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2022 Jun 5];2015. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4417560/
17. Gupta SC, Kunnumakkara AB, Aggarwal S, Aggarwal BB. Inflammation, a Double-Edge Sword for Cancer and Other Age-Related Diseases. Frontiers in Immunology [Internet]. 2018 Sep 27 [cited 2022 Jun 5];9. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30319623/
18. Ahmad SR, Ghosh P. Benefits of dietary sesame seed and flaxseed to strengthen immune system during COVID-19 pandemic and prevent associated comorbidities related health risks. Annals of Phytomedicine: An International Journal. 2020 Dec;9(2). Available from: https://pesquisa.bvsalud.org/global-literature-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/resource/pt/covidwho-1063572
19. Khorrami S, Daneshmandi S, Mosayebi G. Sesame seeds essential oil and Sesamol modulate the pro-inflammatory function of macrophages and dendritic cells and promote Th2 response. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2022 Jun 5];32(1):98. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30788333/
20. Anaya-Esparza LM, de la Mora ZV, Vázquez-Paulino O, Ascencio F, Villarruel-López A. Bell Peppers (Capsicum annum L.) Losses and Wastes: Source for Food and Pharmaceutical Applications. Molecules [Internet]. 2021 Sep 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];26(17). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434037/
21. Minich DM. A Review of the Science of Colorful, Plant-Based Food and Practical Strategies for “Eating the Rainbow.” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2022 Jun 5];2019. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33414957/
22. Spiller F, Alves MK, Vieira SM, Carvalho TA, Leite CE, Lunardelli A, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of red pepper (Capsicum baccatum) on carrageenan- and antigen-induced inflammation. J Pharm Pharmacol [Internet]. 2008 Feb 18 [cited 2022 Jun 5];60(4):473–8. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18380920/
23. Chávez-Mendoza C, Sanchez E, Muñoz-Marquez E, Sida-Arreola JP, Flores-Cordova MA. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper. Antioxidants [Internet]. 2015 Jun 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];4(2):427. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26783714/
24. Mahn A, Castillo A. Potential of Sulforaphane as a Natural Immune System Enhancer: A Review. Molecules [Internet]. 2021 Feb 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];26(3). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33535560/
25. Bessler H, Djaldetti M. Broccoli and human health: immunomodulatory effect of sulforaphane in a model of colon cancer. Int J Food Sci Nutr [Internet]. 2018 Nov 17 [cited 2022 Jun 5];69(8):946–53. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29513123/
26. Hwang JH, Lim S bin. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Broccoli Florets in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2022 Jun 5];19(2):89. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25054107/
27. Thejass P, Kuttan G. Immunomodulatory activity of Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate from broccoli (Brassica oleracea). Phytomedicine [Internet]. 2007 Aug 6 [cited 2022 Jun 5];14(7–8):538–45. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17084602/
28. Yuan GF, Sun B, Yuan J, Wang QM. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2022 Jun 5];10(8):580. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2722699/
29. Wheeler JG, Bogle ML, Shema SJ, Shirrell MA, Stine KC, Pittler AJ, et al. Impact of dietary yogurt on immune function. Am J Med Sci [Internet]. 1997 [cited 2022 Jun 5];313(2):120–3. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9030681/
30. Borchers AT, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. The influence of yogurt/Lactobacillus on the innate and acquired immune response. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol [Internet]. 2002 [cited 2022 Jun 5];22(3):207–30. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12043382/
31. Perdigón G, Valdez JC, Rachid M. Antitumour activity of yogurt: study of possible immune mechanisms. J Dairy Res [Internet]. 1998 Feb [cited 2022 Jun 5];65(1):129–38. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9513059/
32. Lorea Baroja M, Kirjavainen P v., Hekmat S, Reid G. Anti-inflammatory effects of probiotic yogurt in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 2007 Sep;149(3):470–9. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17590176/
33. Ciacci C, Russo I, Bucci C, Iovino P, Pellegrini L, Giangrieco I, et al. The kiwi fruit peptide kissper displays anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in in-vitro and ex-vivo human intestinal models. Clin Exp Immunol [Internet]. 2014 Mar [cited 2022 Jun 5];175(3):476–84. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24168016/
34. Richardson DP, Ansell J, Drummond LN. The nutritional and health attributes of kiwifruit: a review. European Journal of Nutrition [Internet]. 2018 Dec 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];57(8):2659. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267416/
35. Eady SL, Wallace AJ, Hedderley DI, Bentley-Hewitt KL, Butts CA. The Effects on Immune Function and Digestive Health of Consuming the Skin and Flesh of Zespri ® SunGold Kiwifruit ( Actinidia Chinensis var. Chinensis ’Zesy002’) in Healthy and IBS-Constipated Individuals. Nutrients [Internet]. 2020 May 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];12(5). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32443433/
36. López-Sobaler AM, Aparicio Vizuete A, Ortega Anta RM. [Nutritional and health benefits associted with kiwifruit consumption]. Nutricion hospitalaria [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2022 Jun 5];33(Suppl 4):21–5. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27571859/
37. Stonehouse W, Gammon CS, Beck KL, Conlon CA, von Hurst PR, Kruger R. Kiwifruit: our daily prescription for health. Can J Physiol Pharmacol [Internet]. 2013 Jun [cited 2022 Jun 5];91(6):442–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23746068/
38. Skinner MA, Loh JMS, Hunter DC, Zhang J. Gold kiwifruit ( Actinidia chinensis ’Hort16A’) for immune support. Proc Nutr Soc [Internet]. 2011 May [cited 2022 Jun 5];70(2):276–80. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21349229/
39. Skinner MA, Bentley-Hewitt K, Rosendale D, Naoko S, Pernthaner A. Effects of kiwifruit on innate and adaptive immunity and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. Adv Food Nutr Res [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2022 Jun 5];68:301–20. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23394995/
40. Yu Z, Malik VS, Keum NN, Hu FB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, et al. Associations between nut consumption and inflammatory biomarkers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition [Internet]. 2016 Sep 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];104(3):722. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27465378/
41. de Souza RGM, Schincaglia RM, Pimente GD, Mota JF. Nuts and Human Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Nutrients [Internet]. 2017 Dec 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];9(12). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29207471/
42. de Souza RGM, Schincaglia RM, Pimente GD, Mota JF. Nuts and Human Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Nutrients [Internet]. 2017 Dec 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];9(12). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29207471/
43. Ros E. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption. Nutrients [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2022 Jun 5];2(7):652. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257681/
44. Sadek KM. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS. Acta Informatica Medica [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2022 Jun 5];20(3):180. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23322975/
45. Nisa FZ, Astuti M, Haryana SM, Murdiati A. Effect of Papaya Leaves ( Carica papaya L.) Extract on Immune Response (TLR-7, TLR-9) and Inflammation (COX-2) in Rats Induces DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]antrasen). Pak J Biol Sci [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2022 Jun 5];23(11):1450–5. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33274874/
46. Pandey S, Cabot PJ, Shaw PN, Hewavitharana AK. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya. J Immunotoxicol [Internet]. 2016 Jul 3 [cited 2022 Jun 5];13(4):590–602. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27416522/
47. Schagen SK, Zampeli VA, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Discovering the link between nutrition and skin aging. Dermatoendocrinol [Internet]. 2012 Jul 7 [cited 2022 Jun 5];4(3):298. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23467449/
48. Vimala B, Nambisan B, Hariprakash B. Retention of carotenoids in orange-fleshed sweet potato during processing. Journal of Food Science and Technology [Internet]. 2011 Aug [cited 2022 Jun 5];48(4):520. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23572783/
49. Miyazaki Y, Kusano S, Doi H, Aki O. Effects on immune response of antidiabetic ingredients from white-skinned sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). Nutrition [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2022 Jun 5];21(3):358–62. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15797679/
50. Chen CM, Li SC, Lin YL, Hsu CY, Shieh MJ, Liu JF. Consumption of purple sweet potato leaves modulates human immune response: T-lymphocyte functions, lytic activity of natural killer cell and antibody production. World J Gastroenterol [Internet]. 2005 Oct 7 [cited 2022 Jun 5];11(37):5777–81. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16270384/
51. di Giuseppe D, Wallin A, Bottai M, Askling J, Wolk A. Long-term intake of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective cohort study of women. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases [Internet]. 2014 Nov 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];73(11):1949–53. Available from: https://ard.bmj.com/content/73/11/1949
52. Calder PC. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity. Lipids [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2022 Jun 5];36(9):1007–24. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11724453/
53. Gutiérrez S, Svahn SL, Johansson ME. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Immune Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences [Internet]. 2019 Oct 2 [cited 2022 Jun 5];20(20). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6834330/
54. Calder PC, Grimble RF. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity. Eur J Clin Nutr [Internet]. 2002 [cited 2022 Jun 5];56 Suppl 3(SUPPL. 3). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12142955/
55. Mendivil CO. Dietary Fish, Fish Nutrients, and Immune Function: A Review. Frontiers in Nutrition [Internet]. 2021 Jan 20 [cited 2022 Jun 5];7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33553231/
56. Shanely RA, Nieman DC, Perkins-Veazie P, Henson DA, Meaney MP, Knab AM, et al. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. Nutrients [Internet]. 2016 Aug 22 [cited 2022 Jun 5];8(8). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27556488/
57. Hong MY, Hartig N, Kaufman K, Hooshmand S, Figueroa A, Kern M. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet. Nutr Res [Internet]. 2015 Mar 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];35(3):251–8. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25631716/
58. Collins JK, Wu G, Perkins-Veazie P, Spears K, Claypool PL, Baker RA, et al. Watermelon consumption increases plasma arginine concentrations in adults. Nutrition [Internet]. 2007 Mar [cited 2022 Jun 5];23(3):261–6. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17352962/
59. Shanely RA, Nieman DC, Perkins-Veazie P, Henson DA, Meaney MP, Knab AM, et al. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. Nutrients [Internet]. 2016 Aug 22 [cited 2022 Jun 5];8(8). Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27556488/
60. Wang T, Men R, Hu M, Fan X, Yang X, Huang X, et al. Protective effects of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract on concanavalin A-induced autoimmune hepatitis in mice. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie [Internet]. 2018 Apr 1 [cited 2022 Jun 5];100:213–20. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29428670/
61. Zarfeshany A, Asgary S, Javanmard SH. Potent health effects of pomegranate. Advanced Biomedical Research [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2022 Jun 5];3(1):100. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24800189/
62. Viladomiu M, Hontecillas R, Lu P, Bassaganya-Riera J. Preventive and prophylactic mechanisms of action of pomegranate bioactive constituents. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2022 Jun 5];2013. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23737845/
63. Wu Y, Zhu C ping, Zhang Y, Li Y, Sun J ru. Immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects of pomegranate peel polysaccharides on immunosuppressed mice. Int J Biol Macromol [Internet]. 2019 Sep 15 [cited 2022 Jun 5];137:504–11. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31229542/
64. Nutrition and Immunity | The Nutrition Source | Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 5]. Available from: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/nutrition-and-immunity/